TypeScript vs JavaScript: The Ultimate Comparison


TypeScript and JavaScript have been rising in popularity over the past few years. But what really sets them apart from each other? In this article, we will be comparing TypeScript with JavaScript.

First up, we will start off with TypeScript.

TypeScript – What and How?

JavaScript was launched as a client-side language. JavaScript has emerged as an emergent server-side technology as a result of the creation of Node.js. However, when JavaScript code increases in size, it becomes more jumbled, making it difficult to maintain and reuse. Furthermore, JavaScript’s failure to adopt Object Orientation, rigorous type checking, and compile-time error checks hinders it from prospering as a full-fledged server-side technology in the industry. TypeScript was introduced to fill in the gap.

What Exactly is TypeScript?

TypeScript is a compiled, tightly typed, object-oriented language. It was created at Microsoft by Anders Hejlsberg. TypeScript is a language as well as a collection of tools. TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that has been compiled. TypeScript is, in other words, JavaScript with some extra features.

TypeScript has the following features:

  • TypeScript is just JavaScript: JavaScript is at the beginning and finish of TypeScript. The core building parts of our application are taken from JavaScript by Typescript. As a result, all we need to know to utilize TypeScript is JavaScript. For execution, every TypeScript code is transformed into its JavaScript equivalent.
  • Other JS libraries are supported by TypeScript: compiled TypeScript may be consumed from any JavaScript code. All of the existing JavaScript frameworks, tools, and libraries may be used with TypeScript-generated JavaScript.
  • TypeScript is JavaScript: That is, any valid .js file may be renamed to .ts and built alongside other TypeScript files.
  • TypeScript is a portable language: TypeScript is a cross-browser, device, and operating system compatible. It is compatible with any environment that supports JavaScript. TypeScript, unlike its predecessors, does not require a specialized VM or a particular runtime environment to operate.

Why Should We Use TypeScript?

In the sense that TypeScript is an enhanced JavaScript, it outperforms its competitors, such as CoffeeScript and Dart. Languages like Dart and CoffeeScript, on the other hand, are novel languages in their own right and necessitate a language-specific execution environment.

TypeScript has the following advantages:

  • Compilation: JavaScript is an interpreted language that must be compiled. As a result, it must be executed to ensure that it is valid. That is, we write all the programs only to discover no output if there is an error. As a result, we must spend hours attempting to find bugs in the code. The TypeScript transpiler provides the error-checking functionality. If there are any syntax issues, TypeScript will compile the code and generate compilation errors. This aids in highlighting errors before the script is executed.
  • Static Typing Is Very Strong: JavaScript does not have robust static typing. Through the TLS, TypeScript includes an optional static typing and type inference mechanism (TypeScript Language Service). The TLS can deduce the type of a variable defined with no type based on its value.
  • Type declarations for existing JavaScript libraries are supported by TypeScript. The TypeScript Definition file (with the.d.ts extension) defines external JavaScript libraries. As a result, TypeScript programs can include these libraries.
  • Classes, interfaces, inheritance, and other Object-Oriented Programming concepts are supported by TypeScript.

TypeScript Components

The three components of TypeScript are as follows:

  • Language is made up of syntax, keywords, and type annotations.
  • TypeScript Compiler is the compiler that transforms TypeScript commands to JavaScript equivalents.
  • The TypeScript Language Service adds an extra layer of editor-like apps surrounding the basic compiler process. The language service enables the standard set of editor functions such as statement completion, signature assistance, code formatting, and outlining, colorization, etc.

Declaration Files

When a TypeScript script is generated, the option to produce a declaration file (with the extension .d.ts) that serves as an interface to the components in the compiled JavaScript is available. The notion of declaration files is similar to that of header files in C/C++. Declaration files (files with the .d.ts extension) offer type, function call, and variable support for JavaScript libraries such as jQuery, MooTools, etc.

Environment Setup of TypeScript

We have already built up TypeScript programming online to run all of the accessible examples online at the same time as we work on our theory. This provides our trust in what we’re reading and allows us to test the results with other alternatives. Feel free to edit any of the examples and run them online.

var message:string = "Hello Everyone"

It will create the following JavaScript code after compiling.

var message = "Hello Everyone";

We’ll go over how to install TypeScript on the Windows platform. We’ll also show us how to set up the Brackets IDE.

We may test our scripts online by visiting this page. The online editor displays the JavaScript generated by the compiler.

We may use Playground to test the following example:

var num:number = 14

It will create the following JavaScript code after compiling:

var num = 14;

Setup of the Local Environment in TypeScript

Setup of the Local Environment:  It can operate on any browser, host, and operating system. To create and test a Typescript application, we will need the following tools:

Text Editor

A text editor assists us in writing our source code. Some editors are Windows Notepad, Notepad++, Emacs, vim or vi, and so on. The editors used may differ depending on the operating system.

The source files are usually labeled with the extension ‘.ts’.

TypeScript Compiler

The TypeScript compiler is a .ts file that has been compiled to a JavaScript (.js) file. The TypeScript Compiler (TSC) is a source-to-source (transcompiler / transpiler) compiler.

The TSC creates a JavaScript version of the ‘.ts’ file that it is given. In other words, the TSC generates JavaScript source code from the Typescript file sent to it. This is referred to as transpilation.

The compiler, on the other hand, rejects any raw JavaScript file that is handed to it. The compiler only works with ‘.ts’ or ‘.d.ts’ files.

Node.js Installation

Node.js is a cross-platform open-source runtime environment for server-side JavaScript. To run JavaScript without browser support, Node.js is necessary. It executes code using the Google V8 JavaScript engine. We may get the source code for Node.js or a pre-built installation for our platform. The Node may be downloaded from the official website.

Installing TypeScript and Node on Windows

To install Node.js in a Windows environment, follow the instructions outlined below.

  • Step 1: Download and execute the Node .msi installer.
  • Step 2: In the terminal window, type node –v to see if the installation was successful.
  • Step 3: In the terminal window, type the following command to install TypeScript.
npm install -g typescript

IDEs that Support TypeScript

Typescript may be created in various development environments, including Visual Studio, Sublime Text 2, WebStorm/PHPStorm, Eclipse, Brackets, and others.  Visual Studio Code is the development environment utilized here (Windows platform).

Visual Studio Code

Visual Studio Code is an open-source IDE from Microsoft. It is accessible for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X. VScode can be found at

  • Step 1: Download Visual Studio Code for Windows from the VS Code website.
  • Step 2: To begin the setup process, double-click on ‘VSCodeSetup.exe’ Launch Setup Process. It will just take a minute to do this task.
  • Step 3: We can directly navigate the file’s path by right-clicking on the file and selecting the open in command prompt. The Reveal in Explorer option, on the other hand, displays the file in the File Explorer.

Types in TypeScript

The Type System represents the many sorts of values that the language supports. Before the software stores or manipulates the provided values, the Type System validates them. This guarantees that the code works as it should. The Type System also enables greater code hinting and automatic documentation.

Data types are provided by TypeScript as part of its optional Type System. The following data types are classified:

  • Any type
  • Built-in types
  • User-defined

Any Type

In TypeScript, any data type is the super type of all types. It refers to a dynamic type. When we use any type, we are opting out of type checking for a variable.

Built-in Types

Data type Keyword Description
Number number 64-bit floating-point numbers with double precision. It is capable of representing both integers and fractions.
String string This symbol represents a series of Unicode characters.
Boolean boolean True and false logical values are defined.
Void void Non-returning functions are represented on function return types.
Null null Represents the deliberate absence of an object value.
Undefined undefined Indicates the value assigned to all uninitialized variables.


Enumerations, classes, interfaces, arrays, and tuples are examples of user-defined types.

JavaScript – What and How?

JavaScript is a text-based programming language used on both the client and server sides to make web pages interactive. Whereas HTML and CSS provide structure and design to web pages, JavaScript provides interactive components that interest users. JavaScript is commonly used in everyday applications such as the Amazon search box, a news recap video embedded in The New York Times, and refreshing our Twitter feed.

By changing a static page into an interactive one, including JavaScript, improves the user experience of the web page. To summarize, JavaScript provides functionality to web pages.

What is the Purpose of JavaScript?

JavaScript is most often seen in web-based apps and web browsers. However, JavaScript is utilized outside of the Web in software, servers, and embedded hardware controllers. Here are some examples of how JavaScript is used:

  • Adding interactive functionality to websites
  • JavaScript enables users to interact with web pages. There are essentially no restrictions to what we may do using JavaScript on a web page – here are a few examples:
  • With the press of a button, we may show or hide more information.
  • When the mouse lingers over a button, it changes color.
  • On the homepage, we may scroll through a picture carousel.
  • Zooming in or out on a picture.
  • A timer or countdown is shown on a website.
  • Incorporating audio and video into a web page.
  • Animated images are being displayed.
  • Using a hamburger menu with a drop-down menu.
  • Developing online and mobile apps
  • Building web servers and server applications
  • Game development

Advantages of JavaScript

The benefits of utilizing JavaScript are as follows:

  • Less server interaction: We may check user input before sending the page to the server, which reduces server interaction. This reduces server traffic, resulting in a reduced burden on our server.
  • Immediate feedback to the visitors: This reduces server traffic, reducing our server’s burden. Visitors receive immediate feedback; they do not have to wait for a page reload to discover whether they have neglected to type something.
  • Increased interactivity: Interactivity may be increased by creating interfaces that respond when the user hovers over them with a mouse or activates them with the keyboard.
  • Richer interfaces: Richer interfaces: We may use JavaScript to integrate features like drag-and-drop components and sliders to provide our site users with a Rich Interface.

JavaScript Syntax

JavaScript may be used to create web pages by inserting JavaScript statements between the <script> … </script> HTML elements.

We may insert the <script> tags containing our JavaScript wherever on our web page, but it is usually best to keep it within the head> tags.

The <script> element instructs the browser to begin reading all content between these tags as a script. The following is a basic syntax for our JavaScript.

   Code of JavaScript

The script tag requires two crucial attributes:

  • Language: This element defines the scripting language that is being used. Its value is often javascript, even though subsequent versions of HTML (and its successor, XHTML) have phased out using this feature.
  • Type: Type is now suggested to identify the scripting language in use, and its value should be set to “text/javascript.”

As a result, our JavaScript portion will look like this:

<script lang = "javascript" type = "text/javascript">
   Code of JavaScript

What is the Difference Between TypeScript and JavaScript?

When JavaScript was developed, the JavaScript improvement group presented JavaScript as a customer-side programming language. Yet, when individuals were utilizing JavaScript, engineers realized that JavaScript could be used as a server-side programming language moreover. Yet, When JavaScript was developing, then the code of JavaScript became complicated and weighty.

Along these lines, JavaScript was not even ready to full fill the necessity of an Object-arranged programming language. This keeps JavaScript from prevailing at the undertaking level as a server-side innovation. Then, at that point, TypeScript was created by the advancement group to overcome this issue.

The Major Distinction Between TypeScript and JavaScript

  • TypeScript is known as an Object-situated programming language, while JavaScript is a prearranging language.
  • TypeScript has a component known as Static composing, yet JavaScript doesn’t have this element.
  • TypeScript gives support for modules though JavaScript doesn’t uphold modules.
  • TypeScript has Interface, yet JavaScript doesn’t have an Interface.

Benefits of Utilizing TypeScript over JavaScript

  • TypeScript consistently brings up the compilation mistakes at the hour of advancement, as it were. In view of this, the shot at getting errors is extremely less in the run-time though JavaScript is an interpreted language.
  • TypeScript has an element that is specifically or supports static composing. That implies Static composing considers checking type accuracy at the incorporate time. This isn’t accessible in JavaScript.
  • TypeScript is only JavaScript and some extra elements, for example, ES6 highlights. It may not be supported in our objective program, yet the TypeScript compiler can order the .ts documents into ES3, ES4, and ES5.


As we have seen, TypeScript offers several key advantages over JavaScript. That said, TS has a longer execution memory requirement than JS, JavaScript as a rule, has lesser memory management issues.


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